Your are here: Home» Faculty» Full-time Professors» Z


ZHANG Xiaobo
Office Phone Number:010-62758563


Ph.D. in Applied Economics and Management, Cornell University January 2000
MS in Applied Economics and Management, Cornell University January 1998
MS in Economics, Tianjin Univ. of Finance and Economics, China May 1990
BS in Mathematics, Nankai University, China May 1987



National School of Development, Peking University, China
“National One Thousand Talent Program” Chair Professor of Economics 2012-present
International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC
Senior Research Fellow February 2006-present
Co-Leader, Rural-urban Linkage Program 2009-present
Leader, China Program August 2005-March 2009
Research Fellow February 2003 – January 2006
Postdoctoral Research Fellow February 2000 - January 2003
Research Analyst September 1998 – January 2000
Intern Summer 1996
Zhejiang University
Visiting Guangbiao Professor 2008-present
The World Bank, Washington, DC May-August, 1997
Summer intern, with Michael Ward, Statistical Advisory Service, Development Data Group
Cornell University, Ithaca, NY
World Bank Graduate Scholar 1994-1996
Research Assistant for Professor Tim D. Mount. 1996-1997
Teaching Assistant for Professor R. N. Boisvert (Quantitative Methods). 1997-1998
Institute of Economics, Nankai University, China 1990-1994



Refereed journal papers in English

“Value-chain Segments Clusters and Aquaculture Farmer Adoption of Innovations in Bangladesh,” (Chaoran Hu, Xiaobo Zhang, Thomas, Reardon, and Ricardo Hernandez), Food Policy, forthcoming.

“The “Quiet Revolution” in the Aquaculture Value Chain in Bangladesh,” (Ricardo Hernandez, Ben Belton, Thomas Reardon, Chaoran Hu, Xiaobo Zhang, and Akhter Ahmed), Aquiculture, forthcoming.

“Roads to innovation: Firm-level evidence from China,” (Xu Wang, Zhuan Xie, Xiaobo Zhang, and Yiping Huang), China Economic Review, 49: 154–170, 2018.

“Post-disaster Aid and Development of the Manufacturing Sector: Lessons from a Natural Experiment in China” (Erwin Bulte, Lihe Xue, and Xiaobo Zhang), European Economic Review, 101: 441–458, 2018.

“Happiness in the Air: How Does Dirty Sky Affect Subjective Well-being?” (Xin Zhang, Xiaobo Zhang, and Xi Chen), Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 85: 81-94, 2017.

“Home Ownership as Status Competition: Some Theory and Evidence,” (Shang-jin Wei, Xiaobo Zhang, and Yin Liu), Journal of Development Economics,127: 169-186, 2017.

“Mechanization Outsourcing Clusters and Division of Labor in Chinese Agriculture.” (Xiaobo Zhang, Jin Yang, and Thomas Reardon), China Economic Review, 43: 184–195, 2017.

“Valuing Air Quality Using Happiness Data: The Case of China.” (Xin Zhang, Xiaobo Zhang, and Xi Chen), Ecological Economics, 137: 29–36, 2017.

“From “Made in China” to “Innovated in China”: Necessity, Prospect, and Challenges,” (Shang- jin Wei, Zhuan Xie, and Xiaobo Zhang), Journal of Economic Perspective, 31 (1): 49-70, 2017.
“Policy: Social-progress Panel Seeks Public Comment,” (Marc Fleurbaey, Olivier Bouin, Marie- Laure Djelic, Ravi Kanbur, Cécile Laborde, Helga Nowotny, Elisa Reis, Elke Weber, Michel Wieviorka, and Xiaobo Zhang), Nature, June 27, 2016.

“The Competitive Saving Motive: Concept, Evidence, and Implications” (Shang-jin Wei and Xiaobo), Frontier of Economics in China, 11(3): 355-366, 2016.

“The Road to Specialization in Agricultural Production: Evidence from Rural China” (Yu Qin and Xiaobo Zhang), World Development, 77: 1–16, 2016.

“Neighbor Effects in the Provision of Public Goods in a Young Democracy: Evidence from China” (Agostini, Claudio A., Philip H. Brown, and Xiaobo Zhang), Pacific Economic Review, 21(1): 13-31, 2016.

“Short-term trends in China's income inequality and poverty: evidence from a longitudinal household survey,” (Y Xie, X Zhang, Q Xu, C Zhang) China Economic Journal, 8(3): 235- 251, 2015

“The Patterns of Patents in China” (Zhuan Xie and Xiaobo Zhang), China Economic Journal, 8(2): 122-142, 2015.

“Does Rice Farming Shape Individualism and Innovation?” (Jianqing Ruan, Zhuan Xie, and Xiaobo Zhang), Food Policy, 56: 51–58, 2015.

“Mating Competition and Entrepreneurship.” (Simon Chang and Xiaobo Zhang), Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 116: 292–309, 2015.

“Gender and Public Goods Provision in Tamil Nadu’s Village Governments,” (Kiran Gajwani and Xiaobo Zhang), World Bank Economic Review, 29 (2): 234-261, 2015.

“Do Elected Leaders in a Limited Democracy Have Real Power? Evidence from Rural China,” (Ren Mu and Xiaobo Zhang), Journal of Development Economics, 107: 17-27, 2014.

“Escalation of Real Wages in Bangladesh: Is it the Beginning of Structural Transformation?” (Xiaobo Zhang, Shahidur Rashid, Kaikaus Ahmad, and Akhter Ahmed), World Development,
64: 273-285, 2014.

“Overcoming Successive Bottlenecks: The Evolution of a Potato Cluster in China,” (Xiaobo Zhang and Dinghuan Hu), World Development, 63: 102-112, 2014.

“Are poverty rates underestimated in China? New evidence from four recent surveys” (Chunni Zhang, Qi Xu, Qi; Xiang Zhou; Xiaobo Zhang and Yu Xie) China Economic Review, 31: 410-425, 2014.

“Clustering as an Organizational Response to Capital Market Inefficiency: Evidence from Microenterprises in Ethiopia.” (Ali, Merima, Jack Peerlings, and Xiaobo Zhang). Small Business Economics, 43:697–709, 2014.

“Do Geese Migrate Domestically? Evidence from the Chinese Textile and Apparel Industry,” (Jianqing Ruan and Xiaobo Zhang), Journal of Asian Economics, 34: 79-91, 2014.
“The Rapid Rise of Cross-Regional Agricultural Mechanization Services in China,” (Jin Yang, Zuhui Huang, Xiaobo Zhang, and Thomas Reardon), American Journal of Agricultural Economics (Paper and Proceedings), 1-7, 2013.

“Has the flying geese paradigm occurred in China?” (Yue Qu, Fang Cai, and Xiaobo Zhang), China Economist, 8(6): 18-31, 2013.

“Challenges of Creating Cities in China: Lessons from a Short-lived County-to-City Upgrading Policy,” (Shenggen Fan, Lixing Li, and Xiaobo Zhang), Journal of Comparative Economics, 40: 676-291, 2012.

“Patterns of China's Industrialization: Concentration, Specialization, and Clustering,” (Cheryl Long and Xiaobo Zhang) China Economic Review, 23(3): 593-612, 2012.

“Credit Constraints, Clustering and Profitability among Chinese Firms,” (Jianqing Ruan and Xiaobo Zhang), Strategic Change, 21: 159–179, 2012.

“The Competitive Saving Motive: Evidence from Rising Sex Ratios and Savings in China,” (Shang-jin Wei and Xiaobo Zhang), Journal of Political Economy, 119 (3): 511-564, 2011.

“Positional Spending and Status Seeking in Rural China,” (Philip H. Brown, Erwin Bulte and Xiaobo Zhang) Journal of Development Economics, 96: 139–149, 2011.

“Cluster-Based Industrialization in China: Financing and Performance,” (Cheryl Long and Xiaobo Zhang), Journal of International Economics, 84 (1): 112-123, 2011.

“Infrastructure and Cluster Development: A Case Study of Handloom Weavers in Ethiopia,” (Xiaobo Zhang, Lisa Moorman, Gezahegn Ayele), Journal of Development Studies, 47:12, 1869-1886, 2011.

“China Has Reached the Lewis Turning Point,” (Zhang, Xiaobo, Jin Yang, and Shenglin Wang) China Economic Review, 22 (4): 542–554, 2011.

“China's One-Child Policy and ‘the Mystery of Missing Women’: Ethnic Minorities and Male- Biased Sex Ratios” (Erwin Bulte, Nico Heerink and Xiaobo Zhang). Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 73 (1): 21-39. 2011.

“Estimating the Returns to Rural Investment in Nepal,” (Andrew Dillon, Manohar Sharma, and Xiaobo Zhang), Food Policy, 36: 250–258. 2011.

“Why Does the Great Chinese Famine Affect the Male and Female Survivors Differently? Mortality Selection versus Son Preference.” (Ren Mu and Xiaobo Zhang) Economics & Human Biology, 9: 92–105, 2011.

“China’s Regional Disparities: Experience and Policy,” (Fan, Shenggen, Ravi Kanbur, and Xiaobo Zhang), Review of Development Finance, 1: 47–56, 2011.

“The Evolution of an Industrial Cluster in China.” (Belton Fleisher, Dinghuan Hu, William McGuire, and Xiaobo Zhang), China Economic Review, 21(3): 456-469, 2010.
"Finance and Cluster-Based Industrial Development in China," (Jianqing Ruan and Xiaobo Zhang), Economic Development and Cultural Change, 58:143–164, October 2009.

“Community Poverty and Inequality in Western China: A Tale of Three Villages in Guizhou Province,” (L. Xing, S. Fan, X. Luo, and X. Zhang), China Economic Review, 20(2): 338- 349, 2009.

“Public Expenditure, Growth and Poverty Reduction in Rural Uganda,” (Shenggen Fan and Xiaobo Zhang), African Development Review, 20 (3): 466-496, 2008. [Also reprinted as a chapter in Public expenditures for agricultural and rural development in Africa, ed. Tewodaj Mogues, and Samuel Benin. Routledge studies in development economics. London: Routledge. Chapter 7. Pp: 178-201.]

“Resource Abundance and Regional Development in China,” (Xiaobo Zhang, Li Xing, Shenggen Fan, and Xiaopeng Luo), Economics of Transition, 16(1): 7-29, 2008.

“The Role of Clustering in Rural Industrialization: A Case Study of Wenzhou's Footwear Industry.” (Zuhui Huang, Xiaobo Zhang, and Yunwei Zhu), China Economic Review, 2008, 19: 409–420.

“Impact of Famine during Pregnancy and Infancy on Health in Adulthood,” (Z. Yang, W. Zhao,
X. Zhang, R. Mu, Y. Zhai, L. Kong and C. Chen), Obesity Reviews 9 (Suppl. 1), 95–99, 2008.

“Rural Industrialization in China and India: Role of Policies and Institutions,” (Anit Mukherjee and Xiaobo Zhang), World Development, 35 (10): 1621-1634, 2007.

“Asymmetric Property Rights in China’s Economic Growth,” William Mitchell Law Review, 33 (2): 101-116, 2007.

“Incremental Reform and Distortions in China’s Product and Factor Markets,” (Xiaobo Zhang and Kong-yam Tan), World Bank Economic Review, 21(2): 279-299, 2007. [Reprint as chapter 8 in Policy Reform and Chinese Markets: Progress and Challenges, Edited by Belton
M. Fleisher, Nicholas C. Hope, Anita Alves Pena, and Dennis Tao Yang. Cheltenham, UK & Northampton, USA: Edward Elgar, 2008.]

“Patterns of spatial convergence and divergence in India and China” (Gajwani, Kiran, Ravi Kanbur, and Xiaobo Zhang) in Annual World Bank Conference on Development Economics 2007, Regional: Beyond Transition, eds. F. Bourguignon and B. Pleskovic, page 155-178, 2007.

“Is the Relationship between Aid and Economic Growth Nonlinear?” (Andros Kourellos, Chih Ming Tan, and Xiaobo Zhang), Journal of Macroeconomics, 29: 515-540, 2007.

“Fiscal Decentralization and Political Centralization in China: Implications for Growth and Regional Inequality,” Journal of Comparative Economics, 34 (4): 713-726, December, 2006.

“Famine and Overweight in China,” (Zhehui Luo, Ren Mu, and Xiaobo Zhang), Review of Agricultural Economics, 28 (3): 296-304, 2006.
“Spatial Inequality in Education and Health Care in China,” (X. Zhang and R. Kanbur), China Economic Review, 16: 189-204, 2005. Reprint as Chapter 3, in Market Development In China Spillovers, Growth and Inequality, Page 41-60. Edited by Belton M. Fleisher, Haizheng Li, and Shunfeng Song. Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd.

“Fifty Years of Regional Inequality in China: A Journey Through Central Planning, Reform and Openness,” (R. Kanbur and X. Zhang), Review of Development Economics, 9(1): 87-106, January 2005.

“China, Economic Development and Mortality Decline,” (Judith Banister and Xiaobo Zhang), World Development, 33(1): 21-41, January 2005.

“Local Governance and Public Goods Provision in Rural China,” (Xiaobo Zhang, Shenggen Fan, Linxiu Zhang, and Jikun Huang) Journal of Public Economics, 88(12): 2857-2871, 2004.

“How Productive Is Infrastructure? New Approach and Evidence from Rural India,” (X. Zhang and S. Fan), American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 86(2): 492–501, May 2004.

“Reform, Investment and Poverty in Rural China,” (S. Fan, L. Zhang, and X. Zhang) Economic Development and Cultural Change, 52 (2): 395-422, January 2004.

“Spatial Patterns of Crop Yields in Latin America and the Caribbean,” (Stanley Wood, Liangzhi You, and Xiaobo Zhang), Cuadernos de Economia (Latin American Journal of Economics), 41 (December): 361-382, 2004.

“Public Investment and Regional Inequality in Rural China,” (X. Zhang and S. Fan) Agricultural Economics, 30(2): 89-100, 2004.

“Infrastructure and Regional Economic Development in Rural China,” (S. Fan and X. Zhang) China Economic Review, 15 (2): 203-214, 2004.

“Industrialization, Urbanization, and Land Use in China” (X. Zhang, T. Mount and R. Boisvert), Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies, 2(3): 207-224, September 2004. [Reprint as a chapter in The Great Urbanization of China edited by Ding LU, page 99-124, Series on Contemporary China Volume 30, World Scientific, 2012.]

“How China’s WTO Accession Affects Rural Economy in the Less-Developed Regions: A Multi- Region, General Equilibrium Analysis,” (X. Diao, S. Fan, and X. Zhang), Journal of Comparative Economics, 31: 332-351, June 2003.

“Does Guanxi Matter to Nonfarm Employment?” (X. Zhang and G. Li), Journal of Comparative Economics, 3: 315-331, June 2003.

“Structural Change and Economic Growth in China”, (S. Fan, S. Robinson, and X. Zhang), Review of Development Economics, 7(3): 360-377, 2003. [A Chinese version targeting to general readers is in China Economics Quarterly, October 2002]

“How Agricultural Research Affects Urban Poverty in Developing Countries?” (S. Fan, C. Fang, and X. Zhang), World Development, 31(4): 733-741, April 2003.
“How Does FDI Affect Regional Inequality within a Developing Country? Evidence from China” (X. Zhang and K. Zhang), Journal of Development Studies, 39 (4): 47-67, April 2003.
Reprinted in Globalization and the Third World, edited by B. N. Ghosh and Halil M. Guven, Palgrave MacMillan, 109-128, 2006.

“The Emerging Urban Poverty and Inequality in China: Evidence from Household Survey” (C. Fang, X. Zhang, and S. Fan), China Economic Review, 13 (4): 430-443, December 2002.

‘The Path of Technological Diffusion: Which Neighbors to Learn from?” (X. Zhang, S. Fan, and
X. Cai), Contemporary Economic Policy, 20 (4): 470-478, October 2002.

“Production and Productivity Growth in Chinese Agriculture: New National and Regional Measures,” (S. Fan and X. Zhang), Economic Development and Cultural Change, 50 (4): 819-838, July 2002. Reprint in China's Agricultural Development: Challenges and Prospects, edited by Xiao-yuan Dong, Shunfeng Song, and Xiaobo Zhang, Ashgate, p. 129- 151, 2006.

“How Does Public Investment Affect Growth and Poverty in China?” (S. Fan, L. Zhang, and X. Zhang), World Economy & China, 9 (4): 9-19, July-August 2001.

“What Difference Do Polarisation Measures Make?” (X. Zhang and Ravi Kanbur), Journal of Development Studies, 37(3): 85-98, February 2001.

“Estimating Crop-Specific Production Technology in Chinese Agriculture: A Generalized Maximum Entropy Method,” (X. Zhang and S. Fan), American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 83(2): 378-388, May 2001.

“The Demand for Food Grain in China: New Insights into a Controversy,” (X. Zhang, T. D. Mount and R. N. Boisvert), Agricultural and Resource Economics Review, 30 (1): 1-9, April 2001.

“Which Regional Inequality: The Evolution of Rural-Urban or Coast-Inland Inequality in China?” (R. Kanbur and X. Zhang), Journal of Comparative Economics, December 1999, 27: 686-701.

Journal papers in Chinese

“独生子女政策的精神健康成本:基于倍差法估计,” (谭之博、张晓波)《经济研究》,
2016 年第 2 期。
“产业集群对企业履约和融资环境的影响,”(龙小宁、 张晶 、张晓波)《经 济 学(季刊),2015: 1563-1590.

“产业集群动态演化规律与地方政府政策,” (阮建青、石琦、张晓波) 《管理世界》,2014 年 12 月.

“农业与认知能力发展: 来自中国农业改革的证据,” (牛梦琦、张晓波)《经 济 学(季刊)》,14(1), 2014: 259-284.
“中国的产业多元化”(林毅夫、龙小宁、张晓波)《经 济 学报》,1(2), 2014: 83-97.
“飞雁模式”发生了吗?——对 1998-2008 中国制造业的分析” (曲钥、蔡昉、张晓波)《经济 学 (季刊)》,12(3), 2013.
[The English version of the paper “Has the flying geese paradigm occurred in China?” was
published in China Economist, 8(6): 18-31, 2013.]

“危机与制造业产业集群的质量升级: 基于浙江产业集群的研究” (阮建青、 张晓波、 卫龙宝), 《管理世界》,2010 年 2 月.

“中国经济到了刘易斯转折点了吗?来自贫困地区的证据”(张晓波、杨进、王生林)《浙江大学学报(人文社会科学版)》,40 (1): 54-72, 2010 年 1 月 .

“中国西部地区农村不平等状况研究, 基于贵州住户调查数据的分析” (邢鹂、樊胜根、罗小朋、张晓波)《经 济 学 (季刊)》,第 8 卷第 1 期(总第 31 期): 325-346, 2008 年
10 月.
“基于产业集群的包商制与企业家才能。”(阮建青、张晓波、 卫龙宝)《管理世界》,  总第 182 期): 119-128, 2008 年 11 月.

“资本壁垒与产业集群——基于浙江濮院羊毛衫产业的案例研究,” (阮建青、张晓波、 卫龙宝) 《经 济 学 (季刊)》,第 7 卷第 1 期(总第 27 期), 2007 年 10 月.

“温州鞋业集群的形成:进入壁垒是如何突破的?”(黄祖辉、张晓波、朱允卫),《中国经济史研究》2007 年第 4 期。
“社會賦權的交換與區域間、協調發展,” (羅小朋、張曉波) 《二十一世紀雙月刊》 2007 年2 月號 總第九十九期 13-20.
“农民收入差距问题的一个分析视角:基于农民企业家报酬的考察,” (黄祖辉、张晓波、王敏) ,《管理世界》, 68-75, 2006.
中国和印度的乡村工业化比较研究,Anit Mukherjee、张晓波,《经济学(季刊)》,2006年第 1 期。
中国国内产品市场和资本市场的渐进改革和扭曲, 张晓波、陈光炎,《经济学报》,2006 年第 1 卷 2 期。

“The Role of Public Investment in Rural Growth and Poverty Reduction,” (S. Fan, L. Zhang, and X. Zhang), Journal of South China Agricultural University (Social Science Edition), 1 (1): 1- 13, 2002 (in Chinese).

“Education and Health Inequality in China,” China Economic Quarterly, 2 (2): 405-416, January 2003 (in Chinese).

"Health Inequality and Its Causes: Empirical Analysis Using the China National Child Health Survey," (Limin Wang, Xiaobo Zhang, and David Coady), China Economic Quarterly, 2 (2): 417-434, January 2003 (in Chinese).
“Divisia Index Theory and Practice,” Journal of Statistics Study, January 1992 (in Chinese).

“An Issue on Regional Comparison,” Journal of Price Theory and Practice, October 1991 (in Chinese).

“A Solution to the Dilemma of ‘Qiaoweiba’ Index,” Journal of Price Theory and Practice (Beijing), July 1991 (in Chinese).

“A Social Psychological Analysis on Price Reforms in China,” Journal of Shanxi Statistics Study, January 1991 (in Chinese).

Books and Special Journal Volumes

Zhang, Xiaobo, Yu Li, and Qiming Yang, Report on China Regional Innovation, Peking University Press, 2016.

Fan, Shenggen, Kanbur, Ravi, Shang-jin Wei, and Xiaobo Zhang. Oxford Companion to the Economics of China. Oxford University Press, 2014.

Zhang, Xiaobo and Jianqing Ruan, The Evolution of Industrial Clusters in China, Zhejiang University Press, 2011. [in Chinese]

Dillon, Andrew, Manohar Sharma, and Xiaobo Zhang, Estimating the Impact of Access to Infrastructure and Extension Services in Rural Nepal. IFPRI Research Monograph series, 2011.

Zhang, Xiaobo, Arjan de Haan and Shenggen Fan, Narratives of Chinese Economic Reforms: How Does China Cross the River? World Scientific Publishing, 2010.

Fan, Shenggen, Ravi Kanbur and Xiaobo Zhang, Regional Inequality in China: Trends, Explanations and Policy Responses. Routledge, 2009.

Kanbur, Ravi and Xiaobo Zhang, Governing Rapid Growth in China: Equity and Institutions.
Routledge, 2009.

Kanbur, Ravi, Yingyi Qian and Xiaobo Zhang, guest editor, Special issue on Market Development and Inequality in China, Economics of Transition, 16 (1), 2008. [With an introduction “Market Development and Inequality in China,” (Ravi Kanbur, Yingyi Qian and Xiaobo Zhang), Economics of Transition, 16(1): 1-5, 2008.]

China's Agricultural Development Challenges and Prospects, Edited by Xiao-Yuan Dong, Shunfeng Song, and Xiaobo Zhang, Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2006.

Wan, Guanghua and Xiaobo Zhang, guest editor, special issue on China’s Rising Inequality, Journal of Comparative Economics. December, 2006. [With an introduction “Rising inequality in China,” Journal of Comparative Economics, (Guanghua Wan and Xiaobo Zhang), 34 (4): 651-653, December, 2006.]

Kanbur Ravi, Guanghua Wan and Xiaobo Zhang, guest editor, special issue on Growing Inequality in China Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy, 10 (4), November 2005. [With an
introduction, “Introduction: Growing Inequality in China,” (R. Kanbur, G. Wan, and X. Zhang), Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy, 10 (4): 405-407, November 2005.]

Fan, Shenggen, Linxliu Zhang, and Xiaobo Zhang, Growth, Inequality, and Poverty in Rural China: the Role of Public Investments. IFPRI Research Report 125. 2002. [The Chinese version has been published as a book by the Chinese Agricultural Press, Beijing.] It underwent rigorous internal and external review.


Book Chapters, Reports, and Other Publications

Ruan, Jianqing and Xiaobo Zhang, “Low-quality Crisis and Quality Improvement: The Case of Industrial Clusters in Zhejiang Province,” Industrial Districts in History and Developing World, edited by edited by Tomoko Hashino and Keijiro Otsuka, page 169-190, Springer, 2016.

Lin, Justin Yifu, Cheryl Xiaoning Long, and Xiaobo Zhang, “Industrial Diversification in the People’s Republic of China,” in Development and Modern Industrial Policy and Practice: Issues and Country Experiences, page 197-218, edited by Jesus Felipe, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015.

Zhang, Xiaobo. “Clusters as an Instrument for Industrial Policy: The Case of China,” in The Industrial Policy Revolution I. The Role of Government beyond Ideology, edited by Joseph E. Stiglitz and Justin Lin Yifu, International Economic Association Series, Palgrave Macmillan. Forthcoming in 2014.

Qu, Yue, Fang Cai, and Xiaobo Zhang, 2012. “Has the ‘Flying Geese’ Phenomenon in Industrial Transformation Occurred in China,” in Rebalancing and Sustaining Growth in China, edited by Huw McKay and Ligang Song, page 93-110, ANU E Press, Canberra, Australia.

“Agricultural extension, transactions costs, and supply response: Discussion.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 94 (2): 393-394. 2012.

Xu, Chenggang, and Xiaobo Zhang, 2010. “The Evolution of Chinese Entrepreneurial Firms: Township-Village Enterprises Revisited,” in China’s Economic Transformation, edited by Ronald Coase, University of Chicago Press, 2010. Also in Reform and Development in China: What Can China Offer the Developing World? edited by Ho-Mou Wu and Yang Yao, London and New York: Routledge.

Derek Headey, Ravi Kanbur and Xiaobo Zhang, "China's Growth Strategies", Department of Applied Economic and Management Working Paper No. 2008-17, Cornell University, August, 2008. Published as an introduction chapter in the book Governing Rapid Growth in China: Equity and Institutions, edited by Ravi Kanbur and Xiaobo Zhang, Routledge, 2009.

“China: An Unfinished Reform Agenda,” with Shenggen Fan and Keming Qin in Agricultural R&D in Developing Countries: Too Little, Too Late, pp.29-64, edited by P. Pardey, R. Piggott, and J. Alston, Washington DC: International Food Policy Research Institute, 2006.

“Introduction: China's agricultural development: challenges and prospects,” Xiao-Yuan Dong, Shunfeng Song and Xiaobo Zhang, pp. 29-64, in China's Agricultural Development
Challenges and Prospects, Edited by Xiao-Yuan Dong, Shunfeng Song, and Xiaobo Zhang, Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2006.

“Fiscal Decentralization, Nonfarm Development, and Spatial Inequality in Rural China,” Xiaobo Zhang and Shenggen Fan, in Dragons with Clay Feet? Transition, Sustainable Rural Resource Use, and Rural Environment in China and Vietnam, edited by Max Spoor, Nico Heerink, and Futian Qu, The Hague: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, 2006.

Uganda and Tanzania: pro-poor public investment. Fan, Shenggen; Nyange, David; Zhang, Xiaobo. Washington, DC / Entebbe, Uganda: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) / Eastern and Central Africa Programme for Agricultural Policy Analysis (ECAPAPA), 2006.

"Patterns of Regional Inequality in India and China," (Kiran Gajwani, Ravi Kanbur, and Xiaobo Zhang) Beyond Transition, October-, 16(4), December 2005.

Book review on “Inequality and Growth: Theory and Policy Implications” (eds Tho S. Eicher and Stephen J. Turnovsky. Tokyo, New York, and Paris: United Nations University Press, 2003) and “Perspective on Growth and Poverty” (eds. Rolph van der Hoeven and Anthony Shorrocks. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 2000) in Journal of Economic Inequality, 2005.

"The Issues of Education and Healthcare Inequality in China," in Equity and Social Equality in Transitional China, Ed. by Yang Yao, China Renmin University Press, pp 209-224, 2004.

"The Causes of China's Health Inequality," by Limin Wang, Xiaobo Zhang, and David Coady, in Equity and Social Equality in Transitional China, Ed. by Yang Yao, China Renmin University Press, pp 225-248, 2004.

“Urban Poverty and Inequality in the Era of Reforms,” with Shenggen Fan and Cheng Fang in Urbanization and Social Welfare in China, edited by Aimin Chen, Gordon G. Liu, and Kevin Zhang, Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2003.

“How Do Industrialization and Urbanization Affect Land Use?” in Urbanization Transformation in China: Theory, Evidence, and Policy, edited by Aimin Chen and Kevin Zhang, Edward Elgar, 2003.

“Regional Inequality,” with Kevin Zhang, in Shang-Jin Wei, Guanzhong James Wen and Huizhong Zhou ed. The Globalization of Chinese Economy, page 118-133. Edward Elgar, 2002.

“FDI and Regional Inequality,” with Kevin Zhang in WTO and China: Development Through Globalization, ed. James Wen, Zhihai Zheng, Xinkui Wang, and Xuejin Zuo, pp. 347-359. Beijing: China People’s University Press, 2001 (in Chinese).

“Public Spending Spurs Growth,” with Shenggen Fan and Linxiu Zhang, China Daily, August 16, 2001.

“Why China Should Invest More in Rural Areas: Sources of Growth Analysis,” with Shenggen Fan and Sherman Robinson. A Report of ACIAR funded project on public investment in
Chinese agriculture. A Report of ACIAR funded project on public investment in Chinese agriculture, 2000.

“The Profile of China’s Regional Inequality: The Importance of Nonfarm Sector and Public Inputs,” with Shenggen Fan. A Report of ACIAR funded project on public investment in Chinese agriculture, 2000.

“Priorities of Public Investment in Rural China: A County-Level Analysis,” with Shenggen Fan, Xiaohe Ma, and Linxiu Zhang. A Report of ACIAR funded project on public investment in Chinese agriculture, 2000.


Working Papers

Chen, Xi, David E. Sahn, and Xiaobo Zhang. "Social Interactions and Stigmatized Behavior: "Donating" Blood Plasma in Rural China." IZA Discussion Paper No. 11413, 2018.

Chen, Xi, Xiaobo Zhang, and Xin Zhang, “Smog in Our Brains: Gender Differences in the Impact of Exposure to Air Pollution on Cognitive Performance in China.” IFPRI Discussion Paper No. 01619, 2017. Revise and Resubmit in Proceedings of National Academy of Science.

Kanbur, Ravi, Yue Wang, and Xiaobo Zhang, “The Great Chinese Inequality Turnaround.” Center for Economic Policy Research Discussion Paper No. 11892, 2017.

Bulte, Erwin, Ruixin Wang, and Xiaobo Zhang, “Forced gifts: The Burden of Being a Friend.” IFPRI Discussion Paper No. 01615, 2017, revised and resubmitted under Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization.

Zhang, Xiaobo. “Building Effective Clusters and Industrial Parks.” IFPRI Discussion Paper No.01590, 2016.

Yang, Qiming, Xiaobo Zhang, and Wu Zhu, “Have Chinese firms become smaller? If so, why?” IFPRI Discussion Paper No. 01588, 2016.

Tan, Zhibo, and Xiaobo Zhang, “Does Female Labor Scarcity Encourage Innovation? Evidence from China’s Gender Imbalance,” IFPRI Discussion Paper No. 01540, 2016.

Abdelaziz, Fatma; Al-Riffai, Perrihan; Breisinger, Clemens; Dorosh, Paul A.; Ecker, Olivier; El- Didi, Hagar; El-Enbaby, Hoda; Figueroa, Jose Luis; Kenawy, Laila; Leroy, Jef L.; Minot, Nicholas; Spielman, David J.; Trinh Tan, Jean-François; and Zhang, Xiaobo, “Prioritizing development policy research in Egypt: An innovative approach to inform IFPRI’s Egypt Strategy Support Program,” IFPRI Egypt Strategy Support Program working paper No. 1, May 2016.

Ruan, Jianqing and Xiaobo Zhang, “A Proximity-based Measure of Industrial Clustering.” IFPRI Discussion Paper No. 01468, 2015.

Filipski, Mateusz, Ling Jin, Xiaobo Zhang, and Kevin Chen, “Living Like There Is No Tomorrow: Saving and Spending Following the Sichuan Earthquake.” IFPRI Discussion Paper No.
01461, 2015.
Tan, Chi-Ming, Zhibo Tan, and Xiaobo Zhang, 2014. “Sins of the Fathers: The Intergenerational Legacy of the 1959–1961 Great Chinese Famine on Children’s Cognitive Development.” IFPRI Discussion Paper No. 01351.

Fan, Shenggen, Ravi Kanbur, Shang-jin Wei, and Xiaobo Zhang. 2013. “The Economics of China: Successes and Challenges.” National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No.

Xing, Haipeng and Xiaobo Zhang, 2013. “The Logic of Adaptive Sequential Experimentation in Policy Design.” IFPRI Discussion Paper # 1273.

Chen, Xi and Xiaobo Zhang, 2012. "Costly Posturing: Relative Status, Ceremonies and Early Child Development." UNU-WIDER Working Paper #2012/70 and IFPRI Discussion Paper #01206, revise and resubmit in Journal of Health Economics.

Chen, Xi, Ravi Kanbur, and Xiaobo Zhang. 2011. “Peer Effects, Risk Pooling, and Status Seeking What Explains Gift Spending Escalation in Rural China?” IFPRI Discussion Paper No. 01151 (also as CEPR Working Paper #8777).

Wei, Shang-jin and Xiaobo Zhang, 2011. “Sex Ratios, Entrepreneurship, and Economic Growth in the People’s Republic of China.” National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 16800.

Ruan, Jianqing and Xiaobo Zhang, 2010. “Made in China: Crises Beget Quality Upgrade,” IFPRI Discussion Paper No. 1025. Revise and Resubmit in Journal of Law Economics and Organization.

Yao, Yi and Xiaobo Zhang, "Race to the Top and Race to the Bottom: Tax Competition in Rural China,” IFPRI Discussion paper No 799, 2008.

Zhang, Xiaobo, Marc Rockmore, and Jordan Chamberlin, “A Typology for Vulnerability and Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa,” IFPRI Discussion Paper NO. 00734, 2007.

Rockmore, Marc and Xiaobo Zhang, “Moving Up and Down: A New Way of Examining Country Growth Dynamics,” DSG Discussion Paper No. 40, IFPRI, 2006.

Zhang, Xiaobo, “Security is Like Oxygen,” DSG Discussion Paper No. 6, IFPRI, 2004. Zhang, Xiaobo, Johnson, Michael, Danielle Resinick, and Sherman Robinson, “Cross-country Typologies and Development Strategies in Africa,” Development Strategy and GovernanceDivision (DSG) Discussion Paper No. 8, IFPRI, 2004.


1. Board member of the Board of Directors for the Partnership for Economic Policy (PEP), which is an International Organization dedicated to supporting economic research and capacity building all over the world, and based in Nairobi.
2. Chief editor, 2017-present. Co-editor, China Economic Review, 2010-2016.
3. BHP Billiton visiting professor, October 2015 and October 2016; Adjunct professor, November 2016-October 2019, University of Western Australia.
4. Co-PI, China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) survey (2010, 2012, 2014, and 2016), 2012-.
5. PI, Enterprise Survey for Innovation and Entrepreneurship in China (ESIEC), 2016-.
6. Scientific council member, International Panel on Social Progress, 2014-present
7. Member of review panel, German Research Foundation, 2012.
8. Chair, China Section, American Association of Applied Economics, 2010-2011.
9. Goldfarb Center for Public Affairs and Civic Engagement Visiting Fellow, Colby College, September 2009.
10. President (2005-2006), Vice President and member of board of directors (2003-04), Chinese Economists Society.
11. Member, IFPRI Publication Committee, 2006-present.
12. Member, Academic committee, Fudan Economics Papers. 2006-2008.
13. Reviewer, China National Science Foundation, 2005-present.

14. Reviewer for Agricultural Economics, American Economic Review, American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Area, Australian Journal of Agricultural Economics, Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics, China Economics Quarterly, China Economic Review, Chinese Journal of Economics and Business Studies, China Review Journal, Contemporary Economic Policy, Economic Development and Cultural Change, Economic Journal, Economics of Transition, Food Policy, International Journal of Applied Economics, Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Journal of Asian Pacify Economy, Journal of Comparative Economics, Journal of Development Economics, Journal of Development Studies, Journal of Economic Inequality, Journal of International Trade and Economic Development, Journal of Public Economics, Pacific Economic Review, Review of Development Economics, Urban Studies, World Bank Economic Review, and World Development.

15. Invited seminars at Bates College, Beijing University, Central University of Finance and Economics, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, City University of Hong Kong, Colby College, Cornell University, Fudan University, Foundation for Advanced Studies on International Development in Japan (FASID), IIASA, George Washington University, Hitotsubashi University, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, John Hopkins University, Kansas State University, Michigan State University, MIT, National Taiwan University, National University of Singapore, Oxford University, Renmin University, North Carolina State University, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Paris School of Economics, Renmin, Southwestern University of Finance and Economics, Stanford University, Texas A&M University, Tsinghua University, University of California at Davis, University of Hong Kong, University of Maryland, University of Michigan, University of Western Australia, Wageningen University, World Bank, Xiamen University, Yale University, and Zhejiang University.



1. Peking University Founder Award for Teaching Excellence, 2017.
2. Zhang Peigang Development Economics Outstanding Achievement Award (the highest award in the field of development economics) in 2016.
3. Sun Yefang Prize for Economics Research in China (the most prestigious award in the field of economics in China), 2015
4. Grant from China National Science Foundation (71441008), 2014.
5. Grant from China National Science Foundation (71350002), joint with Justin Lin. 2013.
6. Grant from China National Science Foundation (71341002), 2013.
7. Keynote speech at Fudan University’s TED conference, September 20-21, 2013.
8. Keynote speech at China Economics Association annual meetings, 2012 and 2013
 9. Huang Da-Mundell Lecture, Renmin University, China, 2013.
10. China National One Thousand Talent Program Award, 2012.
11. Keynote speech at the Chinese Economics Society Australia 24th conference, Canberra. 2012.
12. Winner of the IFPRI Innovative Research Fund, 2010 ($300,000).
13. The Gregory and Paula Chow Best Paper Award from the Chinese Economists Society Conference in 2010 for "The Sexual Foundation of Economic Growth: Evidence from China" co-authored by Shang-jin Wei and Xiaobo Zhang.
14. Research award from the National Science Foundation (with Shang-jin Wei), "Competitive Savings, Competitive Growth, and Global Implications," (Reference No. 1024574),
$325,938, 2010-2013.
15. Overseas Collaborative Research Award, China Natural Science Foundation, 2008-2011.
16. The Gregory and Paula Chow Best Paper Award from the Chinese Economists Society Conference in 2008 for "Race to the Top and Race to the Bottom: Tax Competition in Rural China" co-authored by Yi Yao and Xiaobo Zhang.
17. Ford Teaching Fellowship awarded by the Chinese Economists Society, 2004.
18. First prize of the journal articles by the Chinese Association of Agriculture for the paper "Pubic Investment, Growth and Poverty Reduction in Rural China" by Shenggen Fan, Linxiu Zhang, and Xiaobo Zhang published in the Journal of South China Agricultural University (Social Science Edition), 2003.
19. An award of Competent Toastmaster (CTM), Toastmasters International, 2001.
20. Finalist (with Shenggen Fan and Linxiu Zhang), for a research medal in the Escaping Poverty Category of the Global Awards at the Second Annual Global Development Network Conference at Tokyo, December 10-13, 2000.
21. Graduate travel grant from the Graduate School at Cornell University. August 1999.
22. Outstanding M.S. Thesis Award from the Northeastern Agricultural Economics Association. June 1999.
23. Award of Merit for Outstanding M.S. Thesis in the Graduate Field of Applied Economics 1998-1999 from Cornell University. May 1999.
24. Graduate travel grant from the Graduate School at Cornell University. June 1998.
25. L.T. Lam Family Awards for South China research, Cornell University. December 1997.
26. Gamma Sigma Delta, the Honorary Society of Agriculture. 1996
27. L.T. Lam Awards for South China research, Cornell University. December, 1995
28. World Bank Graduate Scholarship 1994-1996.



Associated Press, Bloomberg Business Week, China Daily, Denver Post, Economist, Financial Times, Forbes, Foreign Policy, Freakonomics, Guardian, New York Times, New Republic, NPR Radio, Quartz, South China Morning Post, Walls Street Journal and major media outlets in China.



Cornell University:
Xi Chen (Yale)
Kiran Gajwani (Harvard)
Yi Yao (Central University of Finance and Economics) Yu Qin (National University of Singapore).
Yue Wang
Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium:
Xiaoqiang Cheng (Hong Kong Monetary Authority).
University of Maryland:
Lixing Li (Peking University).
Tilburg University:
Ruixin Wang (Hong Kong Baptist University) Peking University:
Nasser Sultan Abdullah Al-Shaqsi, Fanghao Chen, Ruochen Dai, Qi Dong, Willie Ganda, Yin Ge, Zegeye Habtemariam, Qing Huang, Jinli Li, Yan Li, Xiaoying Liu, Calisto Masilo, Muhammad Yousaf Malik, Rameck Rekerwi, Changyu Ren, Lixia Ren, Shijun Shen, Qian Wang, Baiping Zhang, Jialiang Zhang, Yunfei Zhang, and Ruizhi Zhu.
Luming Chen (Cornell for PhD) Qingqing Chen (UPenn for PhD) Zixuan He (China Merchant Bank),
Jincao Huang (China Power Investment Corporation), Tianshi Mu (Georgetown for PhD),
Mengqi Niu (Jinan University)
Sandile Khumalo (University of Johannesburg for PhD) Xiangyu Shi (Yale for PhD)
Mingzuo Sun (John Hopinks for PhD) Jinlin Wei (Warwick for PhD)
Zhuan Xie (State Administration of Foreign Exchange) Dong Yuan (Tianhong Fund)
Xin Zhang (Beijing Normal University) Wu Zhu (U Penn for PhD)
Southwestern University of Finance and Economics:
Mingqiao Li (Guizhou University of Finance and Economics) Lihe Xu (Southwestern University of Finance and Economics).
Zhejiang University:
Jianqing Ruan (Zhejiang University)
Jin Yang (Huazhong University of Science and Technology) Qi Shi (Guizhou University)